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Greenhouse Gases

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Global Warming Potential


100 Year Potential Effect
From Third Assessment Report (TAR)

CO2 V 1  
Methane 23 times the warming effect of carbon dioxide per ton emitted
N2O                Nitrous oxide 296 "
HFCs              Halocarbons, Hydrofluorocarbons 120-12,000 "
PFCs              Perfluorocarbons    5,700 – 11,900 "
NF3                Nitrogen trifluoride 17,000 "
SF6                 Sulfur hexafluoride 22,200  
Source: U.S. EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 – 2002, Annex 6.
Acid Rain:
EPA's What is Acid Rain?
Acid deposition fact sheet- Ecological Society of America (ESA). Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when...  Last Updated: July 24, 2008. ***
World Meteorological Organization's Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme- Global Atmosphere Watch's Precipitation Chemistry Programme. Archive of global precipitation data. Links to other sources as well.
Air Pollution & Climate Secretariat. Acidification & Eutrophication- learn more about acid causing pollutants, their effects as well as what can be done to counteract their spread.
Acid Rain News:
ScienceDaily- top science news stories from the world's leading universities and research organizations. Acid Rain news.
Acid News Magazine with reports mainly from Europe on the problems of acidification and air pollution, and measures that are being taken to counteract them. Four issues a year, delivered free on request.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Earth System Research Laboratory- Global Monitoring Division's Mauna Loa Observatory measures aerosol backscatter.
United Nations Environment Programme. Project: Atmospheric Brown Cloud Report- Wide Spread and Complex Climatic Changes Outlined- Cities Across Asia Get Dimmer: Impacts on Glaciers, Agriculture and the Monsoon. Nov 2008. Click on resources box to right.
"Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts" The report states that to achieve the goal of reducing uncertainties in aerosol impacts on climate, an advanced, multi-disciplinary approach that integrates surface, aircraft, and space-based measurements with models will have to be developed. Scientists have made gains in modeling aerosol effects, but this capability has not yet been fully incorporated into climate simulations, according to the report. 2009.
"Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols"  A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Sept 2008.
"The Gangotri Glacier, which provides up to 70 per cent of water in the Ganges,
is retreating more than 35 m per year, nearly twice as fast as 20 years ago.
The Ganges Basin is home to 407 million people and contains
40 per cent of India’s irrigated cropland"
(Earth Policy Institute 2008)
Carbon Dioxide: see Carbon Page...
Environmental Protection Agency. Carbon Dioxide's Sources.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Contain Chlorine- therefore reacts with Ozone in the Stratosphere.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Earth System Research Laboratory- Global Monitoring Division. C A M P-The Chlorofluorocarbon Alternatives Monitoring Project.
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration’s annual greenhouse gas index (AGGI) tracks data from 60 sites around the world. CFC graph.
Virgin Earth Challenge is a prize of $25m for whoever can demonstrate to the judges' satisfaction a commercially viable design which results in the removal of anthropogenic, atmospheric greenhouse gases so as to contribute materially to the stability of Earth’s climate.
Cool the Earth Idea Contest is calling for ideas for new business models which contribute to reducing CO2 emissions. We are looking for ideas that can be applied to going forward, not ideas that are aimed at expanding the markets of existing businesses. Applicants are not required to have relevant business experience.
"The U.S. Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks" Environmental Protection Agency. ***
EPA's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Portal. Greenhouse Gas Overview, Inventories, Trends & Projections, Projects.
State and Local Emissions- Greenhouse Gas Emissions- EPA.
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration’s annual greenhouse gas index (AGGI) tracks data from 60 sites around the world.
Transportation Energy Data Book. Chapter 11 Greenhouse Gas Emissions. US Dept of Energy's Oak Ridge National Lab.
EDGAR information system stores global emission inventories of direct and indirect greenhouse gases from anthropogenic sources including halocarbons and aerosols both on a per country and region basis as well as on a grid. The EDGAR system can generate global, regional and national emissions data in various formats.
NASA Measurements of Atmospheric Composition in the Ultraviolet and Visible- ongoing data studies for the study of ozone and other gases, aerosols, radiances, and ultraviolet radiation, and what has been learned about atmospheric pollution and air quality from the international science missions making these measurements. ***
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Earth System Research Laboratory- Global Monitoring Division's mission is to observe and understand, through accurate, long-term records of atmospheric gases, aerosol particles, and solar radiation, the Earth's atmospheric system controlling climate forcing, ozone depletion and baseline air quality, in order to develop products that will advance global and regional environmental information and services.
World Meteorological Organization's World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases c/o Japan Meteorological Agency.
World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme promotes systematic and reliable observations of the global atmospheric environment, including studies of the biogeochemical cycles of CO2, CH4, N2O, and other long-lived greenhouse gases.
World Meteorological Organization's Scientific Advisory Groups (SAGs) and Expert Teams on Ozone, Greenhouse Gases, Precipitation Chemistry and Aerosols.
Carbon Disclosure Project: CDP5. The Carbon Disclosure Project is a forum used by institutional investors to request information on greenhouse gas emissions from some of the world's largest companies. This report, the fifth in a continuing series, contains data on individual company's CO2 emissions and mitigation plans, and also includes analyses of new climate developments.
GREENTIE – an International Directory of suppliers whose technologies and services help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Programme concluded in March 2005 but the web site still provides access to a wide range of information collected since 1995.
LandFill Gas is approximately 55 percent methane and 42 to 45 percent carbon dioxide
with small amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and minute concentrations of other gases.
Gas Flaring:
Global Gas Flaring Estimates, commissioned and funded by the World Bank’s Global Gas Flaring Reduction partnership, estimates national and global gas flaring volumes based on satellite sensor observations across a series of years - spanning from 1995 through 2005.
World Bank.  Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership. In order to address the gas flaring issue, GGFR facilitates and supports national efforts for increasing the use of associated gas, thus improving energy efficiency, increasing access to energy, and contributing to climate change mitigation.
There is roughly one head of cattle for every four human beings.
Greenhouse Gas Organizations:
Greenhouse Gas Protocol is the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions. The GHG Protocol, a decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, is working with businesses, governments, and environmental groups around the world to build a new generation of credible and effective programs for tackling climate change.
Global GHG Register, the World Economic Forum has launched a global initiative to stimulate the disclosure and management by companies of their worldwide climate emissions run in partnership with BrasilConnects, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, International Emissions Trading Association, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, World Energy Council, World Resources Institute and World Wildlife Fund.
IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG) is an Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency, and was founded in 1991. It is a major international research collaboration that assesses technologies capable of achieving deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
Air & Waste Management Association, a nonprofit, nonpartisan professional organization that enhances knowledge and expertise by providing a neutral forum for information exchange, professional development, networking opportunities, public education, and outreach to more than 8000 environmental professionals in 65 countries. Greenhouse Gas Estimating and Accounting.
Regional Organizations:
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, or RGGI, is a cooperative effort by Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. states to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Halocarbons, Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Carbon monoxide levels are four times higher in the northern hemisphere than in the southern.
A "Chemical Equator" divides the hemispheres...
High Global Warming Potential Gases:
EPA.  High Global Warming Potential (GWP) Gases Info.   Sources and Emissions.
Termites give off so much methane and CO2 in their activities that they are considered
a 'major' contributor to global warming. BUT!
"Sulfuryl fluoride, a compound commonly used to rid buildings of termites and other pests,
is a greenhouse gas that remains in the atmosphere for about 36 years..."
EPA's Climate Leaders program offers a variety of technical resources to Partners to help them set and achieve their reduction goals and publicize their achievements.
GHG Inventory Capacity Building. U.S. EPA's capacity building activities focus on specific measurable and realistic outcomes. The keys to this approach are the two complementary sets of tools to assist Non-Annex I (NAI) Parties with GHG inventories...
EPA. Methane's Sources and Emissions.
"Greenhouse Gases Continue to Climb Despite Economic Slump" Carbon Dioxide, Methane Increased in 2008.  April 21, 2009 Researchers measured an additional 12.2 million tons of methane in the atmosphere at the end of December 2008.
Reuters. Cashew nuts may be solution to 90% of cattle methane.
Science Daily.  Methane's Impacts On Climate Change May Be Twice Previous Estimates (July 19, 2005)
New Scientist.  Methane - The hidden greenhouse gas: Methane from cows,rubbish tips and rice fields is warming the Earth. Car exhausts may help the process. But methane from the Arctic tundra could be most damaging of all. May 1989. Old but good.
The UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation estimates that meat production
accounts for nearly a fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Methane Reports:
National Academies. Charting the Future of Methane Hydrate Research in the United States (2004) Methane hydrate has become the focus of international attention because of the vast potential for human use worldwide. If methane can be produced from hydrate, a reasonable assumption given that there are no obvious technical or engineering roadblocks to commercial production, the nation's natural gas energy supply could be extended for many years to come.
Mitigation: see Carbon Sequestration as well...
EPA's Non-CO2 Mitigation page. Sources, Future Projections and International estimates of emissions, projections, and mitigation costs.
World Bank  assists its clients in mitigating GHG's in the following areas: Renewable energy, Management reforms, energy efficiency improvements, and fuel switching for municipal heating systems, Measures to reduce energy intensity in the transport sector and Forest regeneration.
National Academies- "Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change" Strategies for reducing the net future human influence on climate, including both technology and policy options. A focus on actions to reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions and other human drivers of climate change, such as changes in land use, but also considers the international dimensions of climate stabilization. 2010.
GREENTIE – an International Directory of suppliers whose technologies and services help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Nitrogen trifluoride levels are increasing in the atmosphere at about 11 percent per year.
That means about 16 percent of the amount produced per year escapes into the atmosphere.
World News Network- Greenhouse Gas News.
Popular Science.  Greenhouse Gas News.
Environmental Expert an online marketplace, but also a source for industry-related information and resources, like publications, events, articles, case studies & news. News & Press Releases- see Articles and case studies at this site as well.
Greenhouse Gas Online- news and scientific publications. The site catalogues the greenhouse gas related articles published in over 100 peer reviewed journals from around the world.
"In the United States, approximately 6.6 tons (almost 15,000 pounds carbon equivalent)
of greenhouse gases are emitted per person every year."
Nitrous Oxides: (N2O) is generated during agricultural soil management, animal manure management, sewage treatment, and combustion of fossil fuel.
EPA.  Nitrous Oxide Sources and Emissions.
World Resources Institute.  Nitrogen oxides database. Search by region or country.
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration’s annual greenhouse gas index (AGGI) tracks data from 60 sites around the world. Nitrous Oxide graph.
Nitrogen Trifluoride: used in the manufacture of flat panel displays, microcircuits, thin-film solar panels
UC San Diego News. Potent Greenhouse Gas More Prevalent in Atmosphere than Previously Assumed" October 23, 2008. Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UC San Diego.
"producing oil from tar sands releases approximately three times as much global-warming causing
greenhouse gas as does conventional crude oil production."
Oxygen as a Greenhouse Gas:
Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego. Atmospheric Oxygen Research Group. Data.
Ozone Page...
Particulate Pollution:
EPA's Particulate Matter Portal. Info, Data, Standards, Resources, Reports, Links.
Exposure to diesel exhaust induces changes in EEG in human volunteers.  BioMed Central- Particle and Toxicology News.
Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity, and inflammation in mice. BioMed Central- Particle and Toxicology News.
US EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment. Data & Publications. Numerous reports,papers, etc...
Perfluorocarbons: PFCs
Principal source of PFC emissions is aluminum smelting.
(Perfluoromethane(CF4), Perfluoroethane (C2F6), Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), and Perfluoropropane (C4F8) are used by semi-conductor industry)
Personal Calculators:
Environmental Protection Agency. Personal GHG Emissions Calculator.
National Council for Science and the Environment  CRS Reports "Climate Change: Action by States To Address Greenhouse Gas Emissions"  In the absence of a federal climate change program, a number of states have taken actions that directly address greenhouse gases (GHGs). States’ efforts cover a wide range of policies. PDF.
Reports Page...
Reports-GHG Mitigation on Reports page...
World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme promotes systematic and reliable observations of the global atmospheric environment, including studies of the biogeochemical cycles of CO2, CH4, N2O, and other long-lived greenhouse gases.
World Meteorological Organization's Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme co-ordinates and stimulates research on the composition of the atmosphere and weather forecasting, focusing on extreme weather events and socio-economic impacts.
Sulfur Hexafluoride SF6 Used as an insulator for circuit breakers, switch gear, and other electric equipment and in magnesium smelting. U.S. emissions of sulfur hexafluoride are estimated at 1,000 to 1,500 metric tons per year.
SF6 Emission Reduction Partnership for Electric Power Systems is a collaborative effort between EPA and the electric power industry to identify and implement cost-effective solutions to reduce sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions.
SF6 Emission Reduction Partnership for the Magnesium Industry is a cooperative effort between EPA and the U.S. magnesium industry to better understand and reduce emissions of SF6, a potent greenhouse gas, from magnesium production and casting processes.
Sherwood Rowland was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1995 for work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of   Ozone.  In this interview Rowland chose to talk about two issues: Ozone and Global Warming. Vega Science Trust- recorded in 2006.  42 minutes.
Water Vapour:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Earth System Research Laboratory- Global Monitoring Division's Water Vapor Research.



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