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Global Power Generation (25% of world CO2 generation) is responsible for more than
10 billion tons of CO2 per year. The U.S. is responsible for 25 percent of that total, or 2.8 billion tons. Carbon Monitoring for Action
Carbon Credit Offset Associations:
International Carbon Reduction and Offset Alliance is a not-for-profit alliance of carbon reduction and offset organisations. It provides leadership and a unified voice advocating for rigorous industry standards. ICROA members support a reduce-and-offset approach to carbon management.
Carbon Credit Offset Providers and Certifiers page...
Carbon Credit Offset Reports/Papers: see Carbon Markets as well...
Carbon Offsets: Growing Pains in a Growing Market. Environmental Health Perspectives, March 2009. ***
A Consumer's Guide to retail Carbon Offset Providers. Clean Air Cool Planet. Dec 2006. PDF.
Getting Carbon Offsets Right: A Business Brief on Engaging Offset Providers"  List of offset providers. Business for Social Responsibility. July 2007. PDF.
"Outside The Cap: Opportunities and Limitations of Greenhouse Gas Offsets" World Resources Institute, December, 2008. Suggests that U.S. policymakers need to carefully consider the various options for achieving GHG emission reductions in “uncapped” sectors of the economy.
International Energy Agency.  Report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of voluntary carbon offsets as a mechanism for reducing GHG emissions. It defines offsets and explains what makes a ‘quality offset’. It describes the various standards for offsets, explains how the market operates, and lists the main providers and purchasers. PDF.
Pew Center. "Ensuring Offset Quality, Integrating High Quality Green House Gas Offsets into North American Cap and Trade Policy" Offset Quality Initiative offers policymakers practical recommendations for the integration of greenhouse gas offsets into emerging regulatory systems at the state, regional and federal levels. (July 2008) PDF.
According to the EPA, in 2000, only 2% of U.S. electricity was generated
from renewable resources (excluding large hydro-power facilities).
Carbon Management--- Reports:
EPA "A Program Guide for Climate Leaders"  This document outlines the Climate Leaders program, including guidance for developing a greenhouse gas inventory and management plan, and information on EPA technical assistance and national public recognition. PDF.
Carbon Balance and Management is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal that encompasses all aspects of research aimed at developing a comprehensive, policy relevant understanding of the global carbon cycle. Journal.
"How to save the Planet: Be Nice, Retaliatory, Forgiving & Clear" New Finance. September 2007. "For companies and investors, the most important implication is that they plan for a carbon constrained future, whether the upcoming round of climate negotiations results in a major accord or not.'
"Bio-Carbon and Corporate Climate Strategy: A Business Brief on Emissions Reductions Via Forestry and Land Use Projects" Business for Social Responsibility- This business brief explores corporate emissions reductions through bio-carbon initiatives, which offer one of the most important, but complex, activities for reducing global carbon emissions. It builds on “Getting Carbon Offsets Right,” (BSR 2007), a report exploring one of the three main practices in “A Three–Pronged Pronged Approach to Corporate Climate Strategy” (BSR 2006).
"What countries can do about cutting carbon emissions: Greenhouse gas emissions can be cut significantly—and, surprisingly, without huge disruption" McKinsey Quarterly- May 2008.
"Reducing US Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much at What Cost?" Dec 2007, McKinsey Quarterly.
Carbon Futures. Report- Arthur D. Little, management consultancy. Carbon trading's future is uncertain and is driven by emerging legislation for the period after 2012. In the face of this uncertainty, what should executives responsible for investment outcomes post-2012 be doing now to ensure they maximize competitiveness and minimize risk? October 2008.
'A roadmap to combating climate change, The 3C initiative’s recommendations to political leaders''  The 3C Initiative is a global opinion group consisting of business leaders demanding integration of climate issues in markets and trade. PDF.
"Implications of “peak oil” for atmospheric CO2 and climate" shows that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired power plants without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO2 limit.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, VOL. 22, 2008.
SMART 2020: Enabling the Low Carbon Economy in the Information Age. Through enabling other sectors to reduce their emissions, the ICT industry could reduce global emissions by as much as 15 per cent by 2020 – a volume of CO2 five times its own footprint in 2020. Global e-Sustainability Initiative.
"Green and Mean: Can the U.S. Economy Be Both Climate Friendly and Competitive?" World Resources Institute,
March 10, 2009.
"A Roadmap for a Secure, Low-Carbon Energy Economy"
February, 2009. This “roadmap” presents the results of a year-long effort by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and WRI to identify a set of policies to address energy security and climate change simultaneously.
"Evaluating the Energy Security Implications of a Carbon-Constrained U.S. Economy" Jan 2009. In this paper, the Center for Strategic and International Studies and the World Resources Institute examine eight scenarios for technological development and energy use in the United States in 2035. All envision limiting the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to 450 parts per million (ppm).
"Bottom Line on Corporate GHG Inventories" This fact sheet answers key questions about corporate GHG inventories and how they relate to other GHG measurement initiatives. World Resources Institute, Mar 2008.
Carbon Disclosure Project: CDP5. The Carbon Disclosure Project is a forum used by institutional investors to request information on greenhouse gas emissions from some of the world's largest companies. This report, the fifth in a continuing series, contains data on individual company's CO2 emissions and mitigation plans, and also includes analyses of new climate developments.
"Carbon footprints and embodied carbon at multiple scales" reviews the literature and methods appropriate at different scales ranging from product carbon footprints through to national carbon footprints. Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, 2010.
"Managing Carbon Leakage" is an opinion piece that compares the application of carbon leakage in the economic literature compared to the carbon footprint literature. Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, 2010.
The largest total CO2 emitter, Huaneng Power International in China,
is creating 292,000,000 tons of CO2 per year.
Carbon Market Associations/Orgs:
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Emissions Trading Page-numerous resources - for beginners or experts - introductory and in-depth publications, the official UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol texts and a search engine to the UNFCCC library.
Carbon Markets and Investors Association is an international trade association representing service providers to the global carbon market. Representing businesses working to reduce carbon emissions through the market mechanisms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.
International Emissions Trading Association's goal is to development an active, global greenhouse gas market, consistent across national boundaries and involving all flexibility mechanisms: the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and emissions trading;while ensuring effective business participation.
Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions. A decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards.
Prototype Carbon Fund. A partnership between seventeen companies and six governments, and managed by the World Bank. As the first carbon fund, its mission is to pioneer the market for project-based greenhouse gas emission reductions while promoting sustainable development and offering a learning-by-doing opportunity to its stakeholders.
Climate Action Reserve, a new division of the California Climate Action Registry- created to provide a high, accurate and measurable standard for the national voluntary carbon reduction market.
Carbon Market Cos (a sampling):
CantorCO2e is a leading global provider of financial services to the world’s environmental and energy markets, offering finance, advice, technology and transaction services to clients engaged in using energy and managing emissions across the world.
EcoSecurities has structured and guided greenhouse gas emission reduction projects for ten years, working with both project developers and buyers of emission reduction credits. Based in Ireland.
Carbon Market Solutions. Assists organizations to take advantage of opportunities in the global carbon market.  Based in New Zealand
EDF Trading has been actively involved in the CDM market since 2004. Clean Development Mechanism project developers in China, India, Brazil and Russia; industrial customers in EU countries; Japanese counterparts; and utilities and banks. EU based.
Camco works with companies and investors to identify and develop projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and then arranges for the sale and delivery of carbon credits to international compliance buyers and into the voluntary market.'' Based on Channel Islands.
Carbon Market Data:
Voluntary Carbon Standard Project Database is the Voluntary Carbon Standard Association’s centralized source of information regarding all projects approved and Voluntary Carbon Units issued under the VCS Program.
Emissions wiki about everything and anything related to Emissions trading, hosted by Carbon360. Information to be successful and lawful in trading.
Argus is a provider of price assessments, business intelligence and market data on the global coal, electricity, oil, gas, emissions and transportation industries.
Carbon Market Events:
Carbon TradeEx America- a comprehensive event in the U.S. connecting climate policy, carbon markets, energy security, low carbon technology, and the green economic recovery. Carbon TradeEx America is designed to serve the national education, networking and business needs of all current and future carbon market players.
California Climate Action Registry, Point Carbon and IETA annual event. Navigating the American Carbon World April 2009.
Carbon Market News:
Chicago Climate Exchange. News Page.
Carbon Finance is a monthly newsletter and e-mail update service providing in-depth coverage of the global markets in greenhouse gas emissions.
Carbon Market Reports/Papers:
"The Debate Zone: Carbon Tax V. Cap and Trade"  McKinsey Quarterly. Feb 2009. Plus, reader's comments. ***
IETA's GHG Market Report 2008 - Piecing Together a Comprehensive International Agreement for a Truly Global Carbon Market. International Emissions Trading Association. Dec 2008.
Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidelines, Dept of Energy.  Final General Guidelines (April 2006). PDF.
Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidelines, DOE January 2007 Corrected Technical Guidelines. PDF.
Carbon Futures. Arthur D. Little, management consultancy. Carbon trading can have a significant influence on the bottom line and is here to stay. Its future, however, is uncertain and is driven by emerging legislation for the period after 2012. In the face of this uncertainty, what should executives responsible for investment outcomes post-2012 be doing now to ensure they maximize competitiveness and minimize risk? October 2008.
"State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2008"
by The Ecosystem Marketplace Team. OTC volume of voluntary emission offsets nearly tripled in 2007, and Ecosystem Marketplace has once again teamed up with New Carbon Finance to crunch and analyze this market. PDF.
Offsetting Emissions: A Business Brief on the Voluntary Carbon Market (Second Edition)" The Ecosystem Marketplace and Business for Social Responsibility (BSR) have partnered to produce this business brief for companies that are considering engagement with voluntary carbon markets. Feb 2008. PDF.
"The Emissions Game - How Markets Can Help Save the Planet" Civic Exchange, the report explains how both traditional and emerging emissions trading systems work and could be employed in China and Hong Kong to address the interlocking goals of air pollution control, energy efficiency, and reduction in carbon intensity. Jan 2007. PDF.
"Ways forward" Chapter 5 of Carbon Trading: A Critical Conversation on Climate Change, Privatisation and Power by Larry Lohmann (editor) published by Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, Durban Group for Climate Justice and The Corner House.
"U.S. Carbon Market Design: Regulating Emission Allowances
as Financial Instruments
" Working Paper, Feb 2009. Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke.  PDF.
"Outside The Cap: Opportunities and Limitations of Greenhouse Gas Offsets" World Resources Institute, December, 2008. Suggests that U.S. policymakers need to carefully consider the various options for achieving GHG emission reductions in “uncapped” sectors of the economy.
"Federalism in the Greenhouse: Defining a Role for States in a Federal Cap-and-Trade Program" This policy brief presents the competing arguments for state-led and federal-led climate legislation, and argues for a third—“hybrid”—approach that maximizes the strengths of each level of government. World Resources Institute, Oct 2008.
"Bottom Line on Carbon Taxes" World Resources Institute, July, 2008. "Climate policy debates often feature discussions about the role of a carbon tax, either as an alternative or a supplement to a cap-and-trade program. This fact sheet describes the similarities and differences between the two policy approaches and answers other common questions about a tax on carbon."
"Bottom Line on Cap-and-Trade" World Resources Institute,
July, 2008. Cap-and-trade programs are the foundation of many climate policy proposals and have been a focus of debate in state, regional, and national legislatures. This fact sheet provides answers to some of the basic questions about cap-and-trade programs and reviews how such a system might work in the United States.
"Creating Jobs With Climate Solutions: How Agriculture and Forestry Can Help Lower Costs in a Low Carbon Economy" Carbon Offset projects include certain types of forestry and agriculture carbon sequestration projects, which are subject to greater measurement and baseline uncertainties, reversibility, and leakage compared to other projects. World Resources Institute,
May, 2008.
"Leveling The Carbon Playing Field: International Competition and U.S. Climate Policy Design" Evaluates a wide range of policy options, including those that would impose carbon costs on foreign-produced goods at the border in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions and addressing competitiveness issues and their impact on health of multilateral trade and climate negotiations. World Resources Institute, May 2008.
"Global Carbon Mechanisms: Emerging lessons and implications" Executive summary explains and reviews the history of the Global Carbon Mechanisms created under the Kyoto Protocol. The mechanisms are: Joint Implementation (JI), which is divided into 'track I' and 'track II'.  Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Direct sale of Assigned Amount Units (AAUs) with and without accompanying Green Investment Schemes.
Establishing a Global Carbon Market: A discussion on linking various approaches to create a global market explores the possibilities for linking differing national approaches. The paper supplements Policy Directions to 2050, in which the World Business Council for Sustainable Development outlines a proposal for a new post-2012 climate agreement and identifies the establishment of a global carbon market as one of its key elements.
"Additionality in the Clean Development Mechanism Why and What?" Oxford Institute for Energy Studies Mar 2009. "Apart from the lack of a level playing field under the current mitigation regime, the real problem with additionality in the CDM is that there are valid reasons why it should be kept, and equally valid ones why it should be rejected." PDF.
Carbon Market Research:
International Institute for Sustainable Development champions sustainable development around the world through innovation, partnerships, research and communications.
Joint Implementation Network (JIN) was established in 1994 with the aim to create an international network for research activities and information exchange about climate change policy issues, in particular project-based emissions trading.
The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) based in New Delhi is perhaps the only developing country institution to have established a presence in North America and Europe and on the Asian continent in Japan, Malaysia and the Gulf.
Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW)  Environmental and Resource Economics, Environmental Management Research.
Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. conducts research and development relating to the generation, delivery and use of electricity for the benefit of the public.
Emissions wiki about everything and anything related to Emissions trading, hosted by Carbon360. Information to be successful and lawful in trading.
The biggest U.S. emitter is Southern Co. with annual emissions of 172 million tons of CO2. Carbon Monitoring for Action
Carbon Markets/Registries Worldwide:
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Emissions Trading Page-numerous resources - for beginners or experts - introductory and in-depth publications, the official UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol texts and a search engine to the UNFCCC library.
UNFCCC CDM Bazaar is a Web-based facility which serves as a platform for exchange of information on Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project opportunities.
Global GHG Register, the World Economic Forum has launched a global initiative to stimulate the disclosure and management by companies of their worldwide climate emissions run in partnership with BrasilConnects, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, International Emissions Trading Association, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, World Energy Council, World Resources Institute and World Wildlife Fund.
Climate Registry is a nonprofit collaboration among North American states, provinces, territories and Native Sovereign Nations that sets consistent and transparent standards to calculate, verify and publicly report greenhouse gas emissions into a single registry.
Energy Information Administration. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities.
American Carbon Registry non-profit online carbon registry- voluntary and pre-compliance markets.
Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)  North American cap and trade system for all six greenhouse gases, with global affiliates and projects worldwide. A Market Simulation.
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is the first mandatory, market-based effort in the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ten Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states will cap and then reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector 10% by 2018.
California Climate Action Registry is a private non-profit organization originally formed by the State of California. The California Registry serves as a voluntary greenhouse gas registry to protect and promote early actions to reduce GHG emissions by organizations.
Midwestern Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord. Members include: Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Canadian Province of Manitoba. Indiana, Ohio, and South Dakota are observers to the process. The Accord is expected to be fully implemented in 2010.
Western Climate Initiative. Partners: Arizona, California, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Washington, Utah, British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec, and Ontario. WCI was created to identify, evaluate, and implement collective and cooperative ways to reduce greenhouse gases in the region, focusing on a market-based cap-and-trade system.
EU ETS Registry- Emissions Trading: Commission connects EU with UN carbon credit registry.
VCS Registry System is the first multiple-registry system in the voluntary carbon market and thus provides market participants with options in respect of where to open VCS project accounts.
UK Emissions Trading Scheme.
Australian Government's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme.
Canadian Standards Association’s GHG Registries Web Site – Helping to manage, measure, and report GHG emissions, reductions, and removals.
Mexico's GHG Program is a voluntary GHG accounting and reporting program created in partnership with the Mexican environment agency (SEMARNAT) and WBCSD.



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